APPENDIX: LINES FROM ROMEO AND JULIET,
LINKED TO IMAGES IN EARLIER POETRY (A-F BELOW) AND GNOSTIC TEXTS (G)
Rom. [seeing Jul.] O, she doth teach the torches to burn bright! C1: brightness E3: bright
It seems she hangs upon the cheek of night Also G1, G7: luminous; G4: light
As a rich jewel in an Ethiop's ear; and A6: sparks
Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dear!
So shows a snowy dove trooping with crows, B4: lily. thorns E1,IV; E3:white
As yonder Lady o'er her fellows shows...(I.v.43-51)
Rom [to Jul.]. If I profane with my unworthiest hand (No dawn song antecedents, but the
This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this: the classical progression from looking
My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand to conversing, to touching, to kissing,
To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss. etc., with an implied comparison to
Jul. Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much, stages of religious experience.)
Which mannerly devotion shows in this;
For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch,
And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.
Rom. Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?
Jul. Aye, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer.
Rom. O then, dear saint, let lips do what hands do;
They pray; then grant thou, lest faith turn to despair.
Jul. Saints do not move, though grant for prayer's sake.
Rom. Then move not, while my prayer's effect I take. [He kisses her.] (I.v.95-104)
Rom. What light through yonder window breaks? C1, G4: light
It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. ..She speaks! C1: sun
O, speak again, bright angel! for thou art E3: bright; C4, H2: angel
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head,
As is a winged messenger of heaven...(II.ii.25-28) B4: from other spheres
Rom. [supposing Juliet's eyes were two stars]...her eyes in heaven
Would through the airy region stream so bright C1: brightness, light; G1:luminous E3: bright
That birds would sing and think it were not night...(II.ii.20-22)
Jul. [before wedding night] Lovers can see to do their amorous rites
By their own beauties... E3: smooth bright skins
Come, night, come Romeo, come thou day in night. C5: moon
For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night,
Whiter than new snow on a raven's back Raven:; sacred to Lugh E1,IV; E3: white
Come gentle night, come loving black-browed night,
Give me my Romeo, and when I shall die [ed. note: die: euphemism for sexual ecstasy]
Take him and cut him out in little stars,
And he will make the face of heaven so fine
That all the world will be in love with night,
And pay no worship to the garish sun...(III.ii.8-9,17-25)
Jul. Poor ropes, you are beguil'd,/ Both you and I, for Romeo is exil'd.
He made you for a highway to my bed,
But I a maid, die maiden-widowed. C4: coming to naught
Come, cords, come, nurse; I'll to my wedding-bed; G3: death came into being
And death, not Romeo, take my maidenhead! (III.ii.132-137)
Rom. Then mightst thou speak, then mightst thou tear thy hair,
And fall upon the ground, as I do now, C4: coming to naught
Taking the measure of an unmade grave...(III.iii.68-70) G3: death came into being
Jul. [end of wedding night.] Wilt thou be gone? It is not yet near day.
It was the nightingale and not the lark D3,II: the bird; D4, D5: the lark
That pierced the fearful hollow of thine ear...
Rom. It was the lark, the herald of the morn,
no nightingale...Look, love, what envious streaks C3: tongue;D1,D5,F1: envious; F2,rowes
Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east. C2: teeth; E1,I: claws
Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day
Stands tiptoe on the misty mountain tops. C6: spies
I must be gone and live, or stay and die... D1: fear; D2: villainy
Jul. Yond light is not day-light, I know it, I;
Therefore stay yet; thou need'st not to be gone...
Rom. Let me be ta'en, let me be put to death; D3,III: gilos, attack
I am content, so thou wilt have it so.
I'll say yon grey is not the morning's eye... E1,I: growing grey
How is't, my soul? Let's talk; it is not day. D4: the lark lies
Jul. It is, it is! hie hence, be gone, away!...
Some say the lark makes sweet division;
This doth not so, for she divideth us...
O, now be gone; more light and light it grows. A3/A7: Turn/Run away; E1,V: glances
Rom. More light and light; more dark and dark our woes! C1: light; E2: cares; E3: sorrows (III.v.1-3,6-11,29-30)
Capulet. [to Juliet] Hang thee, young baggage! disobedient wretch!
I tell thee what: Get thee to church o' Thursday,
Or never after look me in the face... D1;D2;D3,III: gilos, fear, villainy
Graze where you will, you shall not house with me... Also F1:cruel day,envyous; F2:ielosye
An you be mine, I'll give you to my friend; Also A2: brothers; A4: watchmen
An you be not, hang, beg, starve, die in the streets, And G5, G6, G7
For, by my soul, I'll ne'er acknowledge thee,
Nor what is mine shall never do thee good. (III.v.161-196)
Rom. [at Juliet's tomb]. ..How oft when men are at the point of death
Have they been merry! which their keepers call G4: none...torment
A lightening before death. O, how may I G4: receive the light
Call this a lightening? O my love! my wife!
....O, here/Will I set up my everlasting rest, G4: eternal realm
And shake the yoke of inauspicious stars G5: angels around him
From this world-wearied flesh. (V.iii.88-91,109-112) G4: none...torment
Prince. Capulet! Montague! D3,VII: foolish, jealous one
See, what a scourge is laid upon your hate, . Also F2, ielosye; G5,Saklas
That Heaven finds means to kill your joys with love. (V.iii.291-3)
B. IN HEBREW: SELECTIONS FROM THE SONG OF SONGS,
2ND-4TH CENTURY B.C.E. (THE BIBLE, KING JAMES VERSION)
(Literal translations advanced by Bloch and Bloch are in square brackets,
as well as "womb trembled," in 4, from a medieval source;.)
1. The Song of Songs, which is Solomon’s: hir ha-shirim Ôasher li-shelomoh Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth; yishshaqueni mi(n)-neshqot pihu,
for thy love [-making] is better than wine. (1:1-2) ki tobim dodeyka mi(n)-yayin,
2. My mother’s children [brothers] were angry with me;
they made me the keeper of the vineyards;
but mine own vineyard have I not kept. (1:6)
3. Tell me, O thou whom my soul loveth,
where thou feedest, where thou makest thy flock to rest at noon;
for why should I be as one that turneth aside [one who loses her way]
by the flocks of thy companions?
If thou know not, O thou fairest among women,
go thy way forth by the footsteps of the flock,
and feed thy kids besides the shepherds’ tents. (1:7-8)
As a lily among thorns,
so is my love among the daughters. (2:2)
5, Take us the foxes, the little foxes, /that spoil the vine:
for our vines have tender grapes. (2:15)
6. My beloved is mine, and I am his; dodi li wa’ni lo
he feedeth upon the lilies, haro’eh bashshoshannim
Until [Before] the day break [breathe], and the shadows flee away,
Turn [Run away], my beloved, and be thou like a roe
or a young hart upon the mountains of Bether. (2:16-17)
Thy two breasts are like two young roes
that are twins, which feed among the lilies.
Until [before] the day break [breathes], and the shadows flee [away],
I will get me to the mountain of myrrh
And to the hill of frankincense. (4:5-6.)
8. Awake, O north wind; and come, thou south;
Blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out
Let my beloved come into his garden, and eat his pleasant fruits. (4:16)
9. I sleep, but my heart waketh;/ it is the voice of my beloved that knocketh, saying,
"Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled;
for my head is filled with dew./ and my locks with the drops of the night.”
I have put off my coat; how shall I put it on?/ I have washed my feet, how shall I defile them?
My beloved put in his hand by the hole of the door,
and my bowels moved [womb trembled] for him.
I opened to my beloved;/ but my beloved had withdrawn himself and was gone;
my soul failed [went forth] when he spake;
I sought him, but I could not find him;/ I called him, but he gave me no answer;
the watchmen of the city found me,/ they smote me, they wounded me;
the keepers of the walls took away my veil from me.
I charge thee, O daughters of Jerusalem,/ if ye find my beloved, that ye tell him
that I am sick of love. (5:2-8)
10. Set me a seal upon thine heart, as a seal upon thy arm;
for love is strong as death; jealousy is cruel as the grave;
the coals thereof are coals of fire, / which hath a most vehement [devouring] flame. (8:6)
(Lit: [see text]: its sparks are sparks of fire, which burn with God's own flame.)
11. We have a little sister, and she has no breasts:
what shall we do for our sister
in the day when she shall be spoken for?
If she be a wall, we will build upon her a palace of silver:
and if she be a door, we will inclose her with boards of cedar.
I am a wall, and my breasts like towers;
then was I in his eyes as one that found favor [salom, peace]. (8:8-10)
12. Thou that dwellest in the gardens,
The companions hearken to [All our friends listen for] thy voice;
cause me to hear it.
Make haste [Run away], my beloved, and be thou like to a roe
or to a young hart upon the mountains of spices. (8:13-14)
C. IN PROVENCALE AND OLD FRENCH, 12TH CENTURY
1. Watch for us, dear watchman of the tower, Gaitaz vos, gaiteta de la tor
for the gilos, your evil lord, del gilos, ostre malvays seyno more envious even than the dawn enious plus que l'alba
for yonder we speak of love. ` que za jos parlam d'amor.
But we know Mas paor
to fear the dawn nos fai l'alba
the dawn, yes the dawn! (Anonymous) l'alba, oi l'alba!
2. Beloved Lord Steven, go, Amicx N Esteves, via,
for I shall remain yours, Qu’ieu remanh vostr’amia
and if the gilos comes Que si’l gilos venia,
I have great fear Gran paor ai
and great terror E gran esmai
that he will do us villainy. (Anonymous) Que’ns fezes vilania.
3. I. Glorious king, true light and brightness, Reis glorios, verais lums e clartatz
Powerful God, Lord, if you please, Deus poderos, Senher, si a vos platz
to my companion be a faithful aid, Al meu copanh siatz fizels aiuda
For I have not seen him since the night has come Q u’en no lo vi, pos la nocha fo venduda
and soon it will be dawn. Et ades sera l’alba.
II. Fair friend, are you asleep or awake? Bel companh, si dormetz o velhatz
Sleep no longer, softly rise, No dormatz plus, suau vos ressidat
for in the East I see the star grown bigger Qu’en orien vei l’estela creguda
which brings day. I have known it well, C’amena’l jorn, qu’eu l’ai bae conoguda,
and soon it will be dawn! Et ades sera l’alba
III. Fair friend, in singing I call you: Bel companho, en chantan vos apel;
sleep no longer, for I hear the bird sing No dormatz plus, qu’eu auch chanter l’auzel who goes seeking day through the wood, Que vai queren lo jorn per lo boschatge
and I fear the the jealous one will attack you, Et ai paor que’l gilos vos assatge,
and soon it will be dawn! Et ades sera l’alba.
IV. Fair friend, go to the window, Bel Companho, issetz al fenestrel
and look at the signs [stars] in the sky; E regardatz las estelas del cel
you will know if I am your faithful messenger: Connoisseretz si’us sui fizels messatge;
if you do not, yours will be the harm, Si non o faitz, vostres n’er lo domnatge,
and soon it will be dawn! Et ades sera l’alba.
V. Fair friend, since parting from you, Bel companho, pos me parti de vos,
I have not slept nor budged from my knees, Eu no’m dormi ni’m moc de genolhos,
But prayed to God, the son of Holy Mary, Ans preiei Deu, lo filh Santa Maria,
To give you back to me in loyal companionship, Que’us me rendes per leial companhia, and soon it will be dawn! Et ades sera l’alba.
VI. Fair friend, outside on the steps Bel companho, la foras als peiros
you begged me not to fall asleep Me preiavatz qu’eu no fos dormilhos
but to watch all night till day: Enans velhes tota noch tro al dia
now neither my song nor my friendship pleases you Era no’us platz mos chans ni ma paria,
and soon it will be dawn! Et ades sera l’alba.
VII. "Fair sweet friend, I am in such a precious resting place Bel dous companh, tan sui en ric sojorn
that I would not want there ever to be dawn nor day, Qu'eu no volgra mais fos alba ni jorn,
for the most noble lady that ever was born of mother Car la gensor que anc nasques de maire
I hold and embrace; for which reason I do not care at all Tenc et abras, per qu'eu non prezi gaire,
about the foolish jealous one or the dawn." Lo fol gilos ni l'alba.
(Giraut de Bornelh, d. ca. 1200)
4. My love and I alone
in a wood nearby Bethune
Played together Tuesday
All night there by the moon.
Until the night turned gray
and the lark arising, sang: E ke l’alowe chantait as if to say, "Lovers, away," Ke dit:”Amins, alons an;”
and he responded softly: Et il respont doucement:
"It isn't nearly day “Il n’est mie jours,
sweet noble heart, Savourez au cors gent,
so help me love, Si m’ait amors, the lark lies to us." (Anonymous, 13th c.) L’alowette nos mant. (Old Fr.)
5. When I see the lark moving Can vei la lauzeta mover
its wings joyfully against the light, de joi sas alas contra-l rai,
forgetting itself and letting itself fall because of que s'oblid'e-s laissa chazer
the sweetness which rushes to its heart, per la doussor c'al cor li vai,
alas! I feel such envy ai! tan grans enveya me'en ve
of those whom I see rejoicing decui qu'eu veya jauzion,
that I wonder my heart mera villhas ai, car desse
does not at once melt away with longing. lo cor de dezirer no-m fon.
(Bernat de Ventadorn, 12th cent.)
D. IN GERMAN, 12-13TH CENTURY: WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH
I. "His claws through the sky he draws; “Sine klawen durh die wolken
with great might aloft he soars; sint eslagen, er stiget uf mit
I see him growing gray, grozer kraft;
dawnlike, as if about to dawn: tagelich, als er wil tagen,
--the day, --den tac,…
which means to separate the worthy man
from his companion,
the man I let in with such worry,
whom I will bring away from here, if I can.
I owe that to his many virtues.
II. "Watchman, your song removes my joy
and adds to my lamentation;
you always bring me news that does not suit me
always at that same time, daybreak.
You must shut up about such things, Diu solt du mir verseigen gar,
I order you by your loyalty to me, daz gebiute ich den triuwen din.
I will pay you well; as much as I dare, des lone ich dir als ich getar;
just to keep my companion here. so belibet hie der selle min.
III. "He really must get out without delay;
now give him leave to depart, sweet lady;
& let him make love to you some other time
that he may keep his honor and his life.
He entrusted himself to my sacred promise
that I would bring him out again.
Now it is day; it was night then, and you pressed
him to your breast; your kiss won him from me."
IV. “So it please you, watchman, sing and leave him be,
who brought love here and love received.
By your racket he and I Von dinem schalle ist er und ich
are ever startled: erschocken ie;/ so ninder
so while the morning-star has nowhere yet arisen morgensterne uf gienc uf in
over him, who came here seeking love, der her nach minne ist kommen,
nor gleamed there any light of day. noch ninder luhte tages lieh
You have often stolen him away
from my white arms, but never from my heart.”
V. Because of the glances that the day Vor den blicken die der tac
was sending through the window-panes, tet durh diu glas
for which the watchman sang his warning, und do der wahter warnen sanc,
she had to become alarmed si muose ershricken
for him who was there beside her; durh den der da bi ir was
her little breast to his she pressed. ir bruestelin an brust si dwan
The knight did not forget prowess Der riter ellens nit vergaz,
though the watchman wanted to forestall this: des wolde in wenden wahters don!
Leave-taking, near and even nearer urloup nah und naher baz
with kisses and other things, mit kusse und anders
gave them love's reward. gab in mine lo.
2. The day thrust powerfully Der tac mit kraft
through the windows al durh die venster warnen sanc,
Many locks they llocked, it did not help. vil sloze si beslussen; daz half niht
Because of this, care became known to them. des wart in sorge kunt.
3. The sad man swiftly took his leave like this: Der truric man nam urloup balde alsus:
Their smooth bright skins came nearer; ir liehten vel die slehten komen naher,
Thus the day shone in. us der tac erschein.
Crying eyes--a sweet woman's kiss! weindiu ougen, suezer frouwen kus!
Thus they could then intertwine Sus kunden si do vlehten,
their lips, their breasts, their arms, ir munde, ir bruste, ir armen,
their white thighs. ir blankiu bein.
Whichever painter were to portray it Swelh schiltaere entwurfe daz
companionably as they lay, geselleclichen als si lage
Although their joy [love] bore them many sorrows, Ir beider liebe doch vil sorgen truoc
they cultivated love without any hate. = si phlagen minne an allen haz.
E. IN ARABIC, 11TH CENTURY: SEVEN POETS
1. Who is this that, rising like the dawn, / looks down and shines with the brightness of the sun?
...See, the world would be dark now, / but for your light. (Ibn Gabirol, Spanish Jewish)
2. My heart can take on /any form:
for gazelles a meadow, /a cloister for monks,
For the idols, sacred ground,/ Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,
the tables of the Torah,/ the scrolls of the Kur'an.
I profess the religion of love./ Wherever its caravan turns
along the way; that is the belief,/ the faith I keep.
Like Bishr,/ Hind and her sister,
love-mad Qays and the lost Layla,
Mayya and her lover Ghaylan. (Ibn Arabi; Sells, 71-72)
3. When, full of drunkenness, he went to sleep/ and also the eyes of the watchmen were closed,
I came near to him, though he was far away,/ like a companion who knows whom he seeks.
I crept nearer as sleep creeps,./ I lifted myself up as breathing lifts up.
I spent with him a night full of delights,./ until the darkness showed smilingly its white teeth:
Kissing the white neck/ and caressing the dark-red lips. (Abu Amir ibn Shuhayd, Cordova)
4. It is as if we had never lain, our union being a third with us,
and good fortune closing the eyelids of our slanderer,
two secrets in the mind of the darkness that covered us,
until the tongue of dawn almost gave us away. (Ibn Zaydun, Spain)
5. Are you of the world of angels or merely human?
Make it clear to me, for fatigue has weakened my understanding!
I see a human form, but when I think more deeply
it seems to be a body from higher spheres.
...The coming to naught of that thing [i.e. love] will be caused by our
Being bereft of that to which it owed its existence. (Both by Ibn Hazm, Spain; not dawn songs)
6. O night, in which my moon lay embracing me
until the dawn, without fear or caution.
His words were pearls, no need for stars;
his face made there no need for the moon.
While I allowed my ear and my eye
to graze in his charms, I was warned--the dawn!
The night had no fault except its shortness,
but is there more hideous fault than this shortness?
I wish it were longer, even if
I had to replenish it with the dark blood of my heart
and the dark pupil of my eye. (Al-Sharif Mas'Ud al-Bayadi, Baghdad)
7. On how many nights did sleep divert the blamers
From two lovers who gave each other an assignation...
Nothing disturbed us in the darkness
But the likeness of the stars to the eyes of spies. (Ibn al-Mutazz, Baghdad)
F. IN MIDDLE ENGLISH, 14TH CENTURY: CHAUCER
(annotations indicate similar images)
1. But whan the cok, comune astrologer [astronomer], B4: bird Gan on his brest to bete and after crowe,
And Lucyfer, the dayes messager, D3,II: star; E1,IV: morning-star
Gan for to rise, and out hire bemes throwe,
And estward roos, to hyum that koude it knows,
Fortuna Major [Jupiter], that anoon Criseyde, D3,III: signs in the sky
With herte soor, to Troilus thus seyde:...
[Troilus:] "O cruel day, accusour of the joie D1,D2,D3,III: gilos; D5, joyfully; E3, joy
That night and love han stole and faste irwyen,
Acorsed be thi comyng intoTroye,
For every bore [hole] hath oon of thi brighte yen [rays]! E1,V: glances
Envyous day, what list [leads] the so to spien [spy]? D1, envious; C6: spies
What hastow lost, why sekestow this place, Also H7
Ther God thi light so quenche, for his grace?"... D3,I: true light, powerful God
And ek the sone, Titan, gan he chide,
And seyde, “O fool, wel may men the dispise D3,VII: foolish, jealous one
That hast the dawyng al night by thi syde,
And suffrest hire so soone up fro the rise,
For to disese loveris in this wyse.
What! holde youre bed ther, thow, and ek thi Morwe!
I bidde God, so yeve yow bothe serwe!" (Troilus and Criseyde)
2. Gladeth, y foules, of the morrow gray,
Lo! Venuys risen among yon rowes [streaks] rede! D3,II: star; E1,IV:morning-star ye lovers, that lye in any drede,
Fleeth, lest wikkid tonges yowe espy, C3: tongue; C6: spies
Lo! yond the sonne, the candel of ielosye! (“The Complynt of Mars”) D1;D2;D3,III: gilos
G. IN COPTIC AND PROVENCALE: ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL GNOSTIC TEXTS
1.. And he (Adam) saw the woman by him. And in that moment the luminous Epinoia appeared and she lifted the veil which lay over his mind. And he became sober from the drunkenness of darkness...And he recognized his counter-image, and he said, "This is indeed bone from my bones and flesh from my flesh." (Apocryphon of John; Robinson 1988, 118)
2..When God had created me out of the earth along with Eve your mother, I went about with her in a glory which she had seen in the aeon from which we had come forth...And we resembled the great eternal angels. For we were higher than the god who had created us and the powers with him, whom we did not know. (Apocalypse of Adam; Robinson 1988, 279)
3. When Eve was still in Adam, death did not exist. When she was separated from him death came into being. If he enters again and attains his former self, death will be no more. (Gospel of Philip; Robinson 1988, 150)
4. Every one who will enter the bridal chamber will kindle the light, just as in the marriages which are [.....] happen at night. That fire [....] (burns?--MH) only at night and is put out. But the mysteries of that marriage are perfected rather in the day and the light. Neither that day nor its light ever sets. If anyone becomes a son of the bridal chamber, he will receive the light....And none shall be able to torment a person like this even while he dwells in the world...The world has become the eternal realm (aeon), for the eternal realm is fullness for him. This is the way it is; it is revealed to him alone, not hidden in the darkness and the night, but hidden in a perfect day and a holy light. (Gospel of Philip; Robinson 1988, 160)
5. Now the archon who is weak has three names. The first name is Yaltabaoth [sic], the second is Saklas [“Fool”--notes, Barnstone 1984, 75], and the third is Samael [“that is, blind god” --notes, Robinson 1988, 175]. And he is impious in his arrogance which is in him. For he said, “I am God and there is no other God beside me,” for he is ignorant of his strength, the place from which he had come...When he saw the creation which surrounds him and the multitude of the angels around him which had come forth from him, he said to them, “I am a jealous God and there is no other God beside me.” But by announcing this he indicated to the angels who attended him that there exists another God. For if there were no other one, of whom would he be jealous? (Apocryphon of John, Robinson 1988, 111-112)
6. Holy Father, Just God [Provencale "Dieu dreyturier," French "Dieu juste," just (or legitimate) God,
as opposed to the other God, unjust (or illegitimate) and bad] of the good spirits, thou who art never deceived, who never errs, nor lies, nor loses his way, nor doubts: for fear of dying in the world of the alien god [Provencale. "Dieu estranh," French "Dieu etranger," another term for the unjust (or illegitimate) God], as we are not of this world, and the world is not of us, give us to know what thou knowest, and to love what thou lovest. (Cathar Prayer; Nelli 1976, 38-39)
7. And when they [the archons] recognized that he [Adam] was luminous, and that he could think better than they, and that he was free from wickedness, they took him and threw him into the lowest region of all matter...And he [the blessed One, the Mother-Father} sent, through his beneficent Spirit and his great mercy, a helper to Adam, luminous Epinoia which comes out of him, who is called Life. And she assists the whole creature, by toiling with him and by restoring him to his fullness and by teaching him about the descent of his soul (and) by teaching him about the way of ascent, which is the way he came down. And the luminous Epinoia was hidden in Adam, in order that the archons might not know her... (Apocryphon of John, Robinson 1988, 116)